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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was isolated for the first time in 1983 and has had a pandemic spread. Untreated leads HIV to the deadly illness acquired immune deficiency syndrome (aids).
Globally, have more than 30 million people died of aids, and currently lives about 30-35 million people with HIV. Hardest hit is sub-Saharan Africa. In USA are reported about 40.000-50.0000 new cases of HIV each year. 1,218,400 persons aged 13 years and older are living with HIV infection according to CDC.
HOW CAN I TELL IF I HAVE HIV?
You cannot rely on HIV symptoms to tell whether you have HIV. The only way to know for sure if you have HIV is to get tested. Knowing your status is important because it helps you make healthy decisions to prevent getting or transmitting HIV.
The symptoms of HIV vary, depending on the individual and what stage of the disease you are in: the early stage, the clinical latency stage, or AIDS (the late stage of HIV infection). Not all individuals will experience any HIV symptoms.
What causes HIV infection and how it spreads?
HIV infection and aids is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, a retrovirus with comparatively low infectivity in addition to the first few weeks after you become infected when infectivity is high as well as during the final stage when aids progressed. Characteristic of retroviruses is that they are stored in the body's genetic material. An HIV infection heals therefore not out spontaneously, without the HIV virus carrying the rest of their lives. Blood and other body fluids can thus be contagious to others for a very long time.
HIV can be transmitted sexually in unprotected vaginal, anal, and oral intercourse. It is also possible to get HIV if you get per se blood or other tissue from an infected person, such as whether to share gun, through blood transfusion or transplantation of tissues and organs. Transmission from mother to child can be done during pregnancy, childbirth or breastfeeding.
HIV is transmitted not by social contacts. Those who have HIV do not need to be afraid to expose friends, relatives or children in everyday life for any risk. It is by having unprotected sex, and if you are bleeding or to handle blood in any way that you should be careful. Based on the current state of knowledge made the assessment that the risk of infection since 2013 at vaginal and anal intercourse in which condom use is minimal if the HIV-infected person meets the criteria for well managed treatment
Symptom-free HIV infection leads almost never to any limitation in the profession for those who have HIV.
HIV Symptoms and complications
A few weeks after being infected, the infected with HIV primary infection which for some can give symptoms. Symptoms may be mild and fast transient with a period of fever, sore throat, swollen lymph glands and sometimes rash. Others notice nothing.
It may take several years from being infected until you get sick. Clinical picture in this latter phase can in part be attributed to the virus itself, but above all because the symptoms of other infectious diseases may be due to the fact that HIV infects and breaks down the immune system. Certain rare tumors such as Kaposi's Sarcoma can also occur. It is these secondary infections that occur due to the severe immune deficiency that underlie the disease called aids.
Diagnosis of HIV symptoms and treatment
Diagnosis is made by antibodies and/or antigens specific to HIV be detected in the patient's blood. You can also detect the virus genome with molecular biological methods. Testing for HIV at home is easy, secure and fast, we have the right to anonymous testing. You might not experience may HIV symptoms in the early stat you your infections, the lack of HIV symptoms is NOT a clean bill of health.
A diagnose that you have HIV doesn't mean automatically that you have or will develop aids. If no treatment with anti-viral medicines against HIV will about half of those living with HIV develop aids within 10 years. There is currently no treatment that can cure HIV. However, effective HIV medicine that greatly reduces the amount of circulating virus and effectively prevents the development of the disease if treatment is inserted into the time. Today's HIV medicines has a low side effect profile without negative impact on daily life.
There is currently no vaccine against HIV. The best protection is to practice safe sex, not sharing injection tools, and avoid direct contact with blood and other body fluids. A condom is a good protection against HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases, unless it is full and is used for the duration of sexual intercourse. In health care, all medical care and testing based on general procedures to prevent blood infection, such as gloves when in contact with blood.
With a well-managed antiviral medication against HIV becomes viral load in the blood and other body fluids so low that it is not measurable in the routine test. Thereby also reduces infectivity radically and any remaining contamination risk by sexual contacts are considered to be very low and be minimized further if a condom is always used, which is important given that infectivity may increase if the person has HIV gets another sexually transmitted disease.
All pregnant women are offered a HIV test so that HIV treatment can be started if HIV is detected and this will reduce the risk that the child will become infected during pregnancy or childbirth.
At the recent exposure to hiv, it is possible to put in preventative treatment, known as post expositions prophylaxis (PEP), to prevent the infection may hold. Such treatment should, however, preferably be used within 36 hours after the sexual to provide a protective effect.